what are some good techniques, approaches to find defects in a web based application, which would be found in basic testing?



Check out the test heuristics cheat sheet:

This will give you some ideas of what types of things to look for when testing a given type of system. For example, when testing something with an input, do boundary testing (test the limits: what happens when you input nothing? what happens when you input too much data? etc.)


Best approach would be the understand the requirement or the situation and test accordingly.

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