1) Can I say there is a defect when the error % is 70%?
2) How do I know if is a defect in API response.
3) What is throughput?
4) How do I explain the summary report to the developer?
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Error %means that 70% of samplers with that label have failed. If you don't have any assertions most probably there is HTTP Status Code >= 400 for this particular request(s)
If you expect status code 200 OK and response has different status equal or above 400 - JMeter automatically marks the request as failed and stores response message in .jtl results file. You can also save response body just in case your API returns some meaningful error message, to do this add the next 2 lines to user.properties file
Throughputis number of requests per unit of time. For example if you run 100 requests in 60 seconds the throughput will be 1.6 requests per second, if you run 200 request in 100 seconds the throughput will be 3.3 requests per second, etc. See load testing glossary for comprehensive explanation of this and other terms.