I am currently automating tests for a native app and I have some issues with "ghosts" elements. By "ghosts elements" I mean elements that are in the code and technically on the page but aren't visible to the user.

I am testing using Android and I don't know if the issue would also be present with iOS.

Simply put, I want to click on element X but instead I end up clicking on element Y who isn't visible to the user because X and Y share the same specifications (same text, same element type/class).

I have tried ignoring the element Y by using "isDisplayed()" and "isEnabled()" but it seems like both X and Y are displayed and enabled (even though only X is actually visible to the user).

Is there any way I can discriminate between X and Y using the fact that one is visible to the user and the other isn't? If possible, I don't want to ask the devs to change the code of the app.

If it helps, here is how the app ended up with "ghost elements":

  1. Apps open page 1, page 1 has element Y

  2. Apps open page 2, page 2 is different that page 1 but have element X who is the same as element Y from page 1

  3. We are now on page 2 but page 1 didn't disappear and is just "behind" page 2.

I found this and that who seem to be about the same issue, but there is no solution on how to fix it.

PS: I am using Java but I would accept answers in any language.

  • What to you mean under visible? The second element is on the page but out of the current view port?
    – Alexey R.
    Aug 21, 2020 at 11:58
  • @AlexeyR. I mean "visible for the user". It's like both elements are here but there is something on top of element Y so only element X is visible. Aug 21, 2020 at 12:35
  • Oh I see. That means some other element overlaps one of those two so that it is like behind it?
    – Alexey R.
    Aug 21, 2020 at 12:43
  • @AlexeyR. Yes (except that "some other element" is more like a full page, but yes). Aug 21, 2020 at 12:49
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    Okay, I'll form my assumption in the answer and we'll see if it will work
    – Alexey R.
    Aug 21, 2020 at 13:34

1 Answer 1


I believe the UI has a certain hierarchy and normally object hierarchy has ordered structure (like XML). That means that when you add an element you don't just add it to a random place but to a specific place. Usually it is either the top or the bottom of outer container.

So assume you have the structure like this:


If the new page added is being added to the top, then you can access it with /app/page[1]/element

If the new page added is being added to the bottom, then you can access it with /app/page[last()]/element

  • FYI, it does seem like each new page is added at the bottom (I'm just hoping that will be a consistent behavior) Aug 21, 2020 at 13:50
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    Anyway UI framework has to know which page is to render. So the page has to have any property that would help renderer do distinguish it. It is either a position or a attribute of the page.
    – Alexey R.
    Aug 21, 2020 at 13:53

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