Yes for Facebook
However we don't know what happens in these companies development and testing operations
There is no single answer here because different companies do different things.
It is easy to determine if they have data-tests if by looking at their production source code. I did this for Google, Amazon, Netflix and Facebook. I found that only Facebook had such ID's.
However be aware that you can now strip out data-test id's fairly easily so these companies may have them in development and test environments but not in production
My advice to you is to recognize that as systems grow you need to add development and testing organization and tooling that works at that scale.
For example: In new application I often have 1 single file for page objects for all pages. As the system grewos in complexity I start breaking them out into page specific identifiers. As the system grows more I start introiducting 'global', 'workflow' and 'page' level identifiers.
When you feel you are losing control because of hundred or thousands of things it's a good sign that a new organizational approach is needed in order to continue at scale.