I have an HTML with the following element:

<a href="index.html" style="text-transform: uppercase;">index</a>

I'm using selenium-java 4.8.2, Chrome 112 and JUnit 5.9.2, and trying to find this element via WebDriver's linkText locator.

public void testMethod() {

And it does not work. After some investigation I found that when I replace By.linkText("index") with By.linkText("INDEX"), it works, so it looks like the text-transform CSS styling is applied before the element is found.

On the other hand, using the good old XPath works.


Does anyone have an idea on this topic? I thought that CSS transformations should not be applied when finding an element using any selector strategy using WebDriver, but I could not find any explicit information regarding this topic.

1 Answer 1


Yes, linkText is case-sensitive and hence you see NoSuchElementException

There are 2 ways to avoid CSS pseudo elements -

  1. Use XPath to find your elements
  2. Use Javascript executor (refer article - https://www.lambdatest.com/blog/handling-pseudo-elements-in-css-with-selenium/#:~:text=How%20To%20Work%20With%20Pseudo%2DElements%20In%20Selenium%20Java%3F )

In your case, if you are confident the CSS transformation won't change. You may use


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