14

PageObjects The code of automated test cases should be easy to understand and not too complex. If a test fails, we want to know why and this as soon as possible. To allow this exists PageObjects. PageObjects are classes that contains WebElements and every actions associated with those. A PageObject looks like this: class HomePage { WebDriver driver; ...


9

No. Do not just split your pageObject into pageObject2, 3, 4, etc. This goes for all programming - split your classes logically by function, not arbitrarily! Your page object should be the source of truth for that specific page. When you start trying to interact with your page, does it really make sense that you should search between MyForm.java and MyForm2....


9

The PageObject Model is not a framework. A framework is: a basic structure underlying a system The Page Object Model is: an object repository design pattern here. Using the POM might result in a personal testing framework as it creates a part of the underlying structure for your tests. but Data Driven because you always need to extract data from a ...


8

Well, first I would ask these questions: Do you really need to write Selenium test for all of these 500 pages? Do your developers write enough and good Unit tests? I assume it is a Single Page Application and for sure there are so many common components between these 500 pages i.e they are not 500 unique pages with completely different behaviours and ...


8

Page Object and Selenium's PageFactory are distinct things in nature, usually the latter complement the former. Page Object is a design pattern aimed at solving the problem of separating the application interface from the HTML interface. Why do we separate these interfaces? Because web pages elements and functions, as saw by the user, differ from the HTML ...


7

My first advice is to not write automated tests for pages that change frequently. You may be better off testing those pages manually. If you insist on automation, think about which aspects of the pages do not change, and write classes to model those aspects. For example, if forms always consist of text fields and a submit button, you can write a class to ...


7

Page Factory Pattern is like an extension to Page Object Model , but Page Factory is much enhanced model. To start with, we just need to import package org.openqa.selenium.support.PageFactory "Factory class can be used to make using Page Objects simpler and easier". We use Page Factory pattern to initialize web elements which are defined in Page Objects. ...


7

Page object is an design pattern. First you should understand the difference between framework and design pattern. For that refer this link. To understand page object design pattern refer this link. Use Unofficial site for more detail : Do a Google search, you will get a lot info on this link. Page Object Pattern


7

The key difference is that the screenplay pattern organizes the Page Objects The Screen Play pattern tries to address the issues, challenges and solutions that you will eventually encounter and address when developing most UI acceptance test automation, including when you would introduce the Page Object pattern and then face challenges using it due to the ...


7

I think the Page Factory is an extension of the Page Object Model. This Selenium documentation page describes with examples what the Factory adds. If you use the PageFactory, you can assume that the fields are initialised. If you don't use the PageFactory, then NullPointerExceptions will be thrown if you make the assumption that the fields are ...


6

In my opinion, yes, it does. However there isn't really a single way to implement this model that just works. You have to really think about the structure of your website in terms of it's pages, and figure out how you can represent that structure in your code. For one company I worked for, I used the page object model against pages that were very simple ...


6

Answering your second question: No, you can't use the same WebElement. You will get a stale element reference exception because the button on the screen is a different button according to the code. You would need to call refresh() at minimum. Answering your first question: The PageFactory model acts as an extension to your PageObject, allowing you to do ...


5

There are times when using the Page Object Pattern makes a lot of sense and times where it doesn't make as much sense. If you have a web application where it is basically one single dynamic page then it makes less sense, however you can still use "page" objects that are really more like "section" objects for common pieces, for example if you have a Left Nav,...


5

Read this ( scroll down to the page objects section though the whole page us good ) and this for some background Or from this page Taking it back to basics, essentially there are three functions I see a page object pattern provides: Ability to easily instantiate pages in a consistent manner Ability to concisely describe elements on a page, ...


5

I think that you should create a page object class for each page of the site. If you have a single page site, you can create page widgets instead of page objects. The page widgets will correspond to components of the web page (example: footer, header, etc). When the number of your page object classes increases, you should create a base class that all page ...


5

If you think about what a method actually is (a procedure specific to that class to achieve a certain result or get a value) then I would use a single Login method. Having a one-on-one relation between methods and individual elements is not doable for larger pages, and it will make your test methods very long. My PageObjects usually have at least these same ...


5

At the UK Selenium Conference, there was a presentation on the Screen Play pattern, see The Screenplay Pattern - a SOLID alternative to Page Objects | Antony Marcano We have a huge technology ecosystem (60+ apps) and base everything on the Page Object model. We tried the Screen Play pattern and learned many things about it and where it is more and less ...


5

It depends. Case 1 Your first case is the classic object-oriented model where the page elements are the object properties, and the functional routines are the object methods. As long as you keep the object model for you automation code SOLID and DRY, this flavor of page object pattern will work in most cases, and scale well. Case 2 Your second case is ...


5

It will depend on your circumstances. Generally I consider categories such as: common identifiers used throughout the application. Examples may include login, logout, help, submit button, etc. identifiers that are used by forms and shared between different workflows identifiers that are specific to the data that a given workflow collects identifier that ...


5

I used pretty much the same structure, however it was still a bit different. Since Page Object pattern is more about "page objects" rather than the pages as they are known by the most of the web users, there could be the objects which do not relate to any particular page. For example the fragments which might appear on every page (like footer or header ...


5

Isn't that what pageObjects are in essence: A description of the UI elements on a Page and how you can interact with them. Now when writing tests you often interact with multiple elements in a certain way to achieve a workflow. Now if multiple tests use the same workflow it might make sense to move the combination of workflow-steps also into the pageObjects ...


5

I think if you stick to simple PageObjects as described by Martin Fowler it is fine. It should be a simple abstraction to keep your test-code DRY, reusable and increase readability by using page-methods that describe behaviour of the page/view. The linked article is mainly about issues with Page Factories and thinking PageObjects have to return another Page ...


5

When I think how to design a test framework I always ask myself if the code I am writing would be easy to understand by someone else in 6 months. That is why I would suggest to keep it as simple as possible. Since we are talking about a small amount of test cases that will deal with the timeout, you can implement timeout specifc functions inside ...


5

THINK BIG; We are going to automate everything! I am so excited! act small; Automate a single user flow. (Not login, but a real end-to-end behaviour, login might be part of this.) Fail fast; Struggle... Learn rapidly; Retrospect, inspect and adapt, decide on the next experiment and goto act small. I love simple PageObjects as pattern. Not as a "framework". ...


5

To answer your questions: You are correct in that Page Objects are classes and inheriting from a base/parent class is good. When it comes to selectors, the most common option is to have them be variables. When I create frameworks like this, all my selectors are private variables so that only the Page Object class knows about those selectors. Depending on ...


4

Did you run PageFactory.initElements? The PageFactory magic won't actually parse the annotations until you do so. I usually put into the constructor a line like: PageFactory.initElements(driver, this); So that it runs when I construct the page.


4

Given that there is disagreement, the answers this question attracts will probably gravitate toward sometimes rather than yes/no. My opinion is that page objects should have assertions in their constructors, so that my code doesn't offer page methods for a page I never reached. In a made up example, I don't want to return an account page object when I've ...


4

I actually wrote that library while I was at a company creating automation for them. I had plans to open source it, but unfortunately never was able to and have since moved to a different company. In the presentation I was using the library I created, however you can build your own abstraction layer that does many of the things I talked about as well, or ...


4

It all depends what high level operations you have on your page. The requirement of High level functionalities differ from application to application and page to page. Some of the pages may not be having any or some of the options mentioned by you but some may have additional operations like Edit : Change the record to edit mode Delete : Delete the ...


4

I would base this on whether the individual components will be used in other tests. If the methods like enter username are only ever used together with the password methods, then make them be 1 method ('userLogin'). However if you have other tests such as entering a username, but forgetting to enter the password and submitting the form, i.e. testing the ...


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